NPO Almaz S-75 Dvina Missile (SA-2 Guideline) as used by the East German Air Force at the Luftwaffenmuseum, Berlin-Gatow (Germany)
The NPO Almaz S-75 Dvina (NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a
Surface-to-Air Missile with command guidance. Since its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. This system first gained international fame when an S-75 battery, using the newer, longer-range and higher-altitude V-750VN (13D) missile was deployed in the 1960 U-2 incident, when it shot down the Lockheed U-2 of Francis Gary Powers overflying the Soviet Union on 1 May 1960.
The S-75 is a two-stage missile consisting of a solid-fuel booster and a storable liquid-fuel upper stage, which burns red fuming nitric acid as the oxidizer and kerosene as the fuel. The booster mounts four large, cropped-delta wing fins that have small control surfaces in their trailing edges to control roll. The upper stage has smaller cropped-deltas near the middle of the airframe, with a smaller set of control surfaces at the extreme rear and (in most models) much smaller fins on the nose. Typical range for the missile is about 45 km (28 mi),
with a maximum altitude around 20.000 m (66.000 ft). Maximum target speed is around Mach 3.
The Luftwaffenmuseum, now known as the Militärhistorisches Museum (MHM) der Bundeswehr - Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow
(Bundeswehr Museum of Military History - Berlin-Gatow Airfield), is the Berlin branch of the Bundeswehr Military History Museum. The museum acts as an independent military department. Entrance to the museum is free. The museum is in Berlin at a former Luftwaffe and Royal Air Force (RAF) airfield, RAF Gatow. The focus is on military history, particularly the history of the post-war German Air Force. The museum has a collection of more than 200.000 items, including 155 aeroplanes, 5.000 uniforms and 30.000 books. There are also displays (including aeroplanes) on the history of the airfield when it was used by the RAF. Although there are also several helicopters and MiG fighters used during the Cold War by East German forces.