Panavia Tornado F3 (ZE763 / DG) from the Royal Air Force (UK) at the Czech International Air Fest 2005, Brno-Tuřany (Czech Republic)
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing combat aircraft, which was jointly developed and manufactured by Italy,
the United Kingdom, and West Germany. There are three primary Tornado variants: the Tornado IDS (InterDiction / Strike) fighter-bomber,
the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (Electronic Combat / Reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (Air Defence Variant) interceptor aircraft. The aircraft was originally designed to intercept Soviet bombers if they came in from the East to strike the United Kingdom.
The Tornado was used by the Royal Air Force (RAF), Italian Air Force and Royal Saudi Air Force during the 1991 Gulf War, in which the Tornado conducted many low-altitude penetrating strike missions. The Tornados of various operators were also used in conflicts in the former Yugoslavia during the Bosnian War and Kosovo War, the Iraq War, Libya during the Libyan civil war, as well as smaller roles in Afghanistan and Yemen. Including all variants, 992 aircraft were built.
The Tornado ADV (Air Defence Variant) is an interceptor variant of the Tornado, developed for the RAF (designated Tornado F2 or F3) and also operated by Saudi Arabia and Italy. The ADV had inferior agility to fighters like the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, but it was not intended as a dog-fighter, instead it is a long-endurance interceptor to counter the threat from Cold War bombers. Although the ADV has 80% parts commonality with the Tornado IDS, the ADV has greater acceleration, improved RB199 Mk.104 engines, a stretched body, greater fuel capacity,
the AI.24 Foxhunter radar, and software changes. It has only one cannon to accommodate a retractable inflight refuelling probe.